In a digital circuit, the input voltage is converted to the output voltage by establishing a logical relationship using logic gates. A logic gate is a digital circuit that implements Boolean algebra equations.

## Exclusive OR or XOR Gate:

XOR gate is formed by combining AND, OR and NOT gates. In Boolean algebra we denote the XOR function by the symbol ⊕. The quadrature XOR operation of two inputs A and B gives the output as AB + AB or A⊕B. Below is the conventional diagram and truth table of XOR gate with two inputs A and B.

## Exclusive X-NOR Gate:

The combination of AND, OR and NOT gate forms XOR, with NOT gate added the resulting gate is called Exclusive NOR or X-NOR gate. A and B are two input quadrature X-NOR operation resulting in output AB + AB orA⊕B. Below is the diagram truth table of X-NOR gate with two inputs A and B.

## Universal Gate:

All types of digital systems are made by these three logics AND, OR and NOT, so these three gates are called basic logic gates, the four gates that are made using these basic gates are-

- NAND
- NOR
- XOR
- X-NOR

AND, OR and NOT gates are formed by NAND and NOR gates. So these two are called Universal Gate.

## NAND Gate:

A NAND gate is formed by combining a NOT and an AND gate. In this case NOT+AND is subject to NAND origin. In case of NAND gates, multiple outputs are available for two or more inputs. Two inputs are first AND and NOT operations followed by output F= A.B . Below is the truth table of NAND gate with two inputs A and B.

## NOR Gate:

The combination of a NOT and an OR creates NOR. In this case NOT+OR is subject to NOR gate origin. In case of NOR gate, only one output is available for two or more inputs. In figure two inputs A and B are first OR and then NOT operation then the value of output F is F = A + B. Below is the truth table of NOR gate with two inputs A and B.

## Frequently Asked Question (FAQs):

- Exclusive OR or XOR Gate.
- Exclusive X-NOR Gate.
- Universal Gate.
- NAND Gate.
- NOR Gate.